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Posts Tagged ‘Social capital’

What is Social Capital

January 15th, 2014 humas 5 comments

Sumber:http://web.worldbank.org/

Social Capital

Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions. Increasing evidence shows that social cohesion is critical for societies to prosper economically and for development to be sustainable. Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together.

Some key concepts are elaborated below:

Horizontal Associations

A narrow view of social capital regards it as a set of horizontal associations between people, consisting of social networks and associated norms that have an effect on community productivity and well-being. Social networks can increase productivity by reducing the costs of doing business. Social capital facilitates coordination and cooperation.

Social capital also has an important “downside” (Portes and Landholt 1996): communities, groups or networks which are isolated, parochial, or working at cross-purposes to society’s collective interests (e.g. drug cartels, corruption rackets) can actually hinder economic and social development.

Vertical and Horizontal Associations

A broader understanding of social capital accounts for both the positive and negative aspects by including vertical as well as horizontal associations between people, and includes behavior within and among organizations, such as firms. This view recognizes that horizontal ties are needed to give communities a sense of identity and common purpose, but also stresses that without “bridging” ties that transcend various social divides (e.g. religion, ethnicity, socio-economic status), horizontal ties can become a basis for the pursuit of narrow interests, and can actively preclude access to information and material resources that would otherwise be of great assistance to the community (e.g. tips about job vacancies, access to credit). Read more…

Permasalahan Pengembangan Kelembagaan Petani

October 11th, 2011 humas No comments

Ratapan Petani

Petani kecil jika berusahatani secara individu akan terus berada di pihak yang lemah. Mengapa? Karena petani kecil secara individu akan mengelola usaha tani dengan luas garapan kecil dan terpencar serta kepemilikan modal yang rendah. Sehingga, pemerintah perlu memperhatikan penguatan kelembagaan lewat kelompok tani karena dengan berkelompok maka petani tersebut akan lebih kuat, baik dari segi kelembagaannya maupun permodalannya.

Kelembagaan petani di desa umumnya tidak berjalan dengan baik, yang disebabkan (Zuraida dan Rizal, 1993; Agustian, dkk, 2003; Syahyuti, 2003; Purwanto, dkk, 2007) :

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Economic Performance through Time

October 31st, 2008 humas 1 comment

Douglass C. North
Sumber: nobelprize.org

I
Douglass C. NorthEconomic history is about the performance of economies through time. The objective of research in the field is not only to shed new light on the economic past but also to contribute to economic theory by providing an analytical framework that will enable us to understand economic change.

A theory of economic dynamics comparable in precision to general equilibrium theory would be the ideal tool of analysis. In the absence of such a theory we can describe the characteristics of past economies, examine the performance of economies at various times, and engage in comparative static analysis; but missing is an analytical understanding of the way economies evolve through time.

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